Sustainability in the Gardens

Underlying the concept of Gardens by the Bay are the principles of environmental sustainability. Much effort was made to plan and design for sustainable cycles in energy and water throughout Bay South Garden.

Energetics of the Conservatories

Comprising two glass biomes, the Conservatories replicate the cool-dry climate of the Mediterranean and semi-arid sub-tropical regions and the cool-moist climate of the Tropical Montane region. They house a diverse collection of plants that are not commonly seen in this part of the world, some of which are of high conservation value.

The conservatories are a statement in sustainable engineering and apply a suite of cutting-edge technologies for energy-efficient solutions in cooling. This suite of technologies allows GB to reduce our energy consumption by  approximately 30%, compared to buildings using conventional cooling technologies.

Minimising solar heat gain

The two conservatories are fitted with glass with a special coating that allows optimal light in for plants, but reduces a substantial amount of heat. The roof is fitted with a sensor-operated retractable sails that provide shade to the plants when it gets too hot.


Cooling only the occupied zones

The Conservatories apply the strategy of cooling only the lower levels, thus reducing the volume of air to be cooled. This is achieved through displacement cooling – ground cooling by chilled water pipes cast within the floor slabs enabling cool air to settle at the lower occupied zone while the warm air rises and is vented out at high levels.


Generating energy and harnessing waste heat

Carbon-neutral electricity is generated on-site. At the same time, waste heat is captured in the process to regenerate the liquid desiccant. This energy co-generation is achieved with the use of a Combined Heat Power (CHP) steam turbine, which is fuelled by wood and horticultural waste from across Singapore. In doing so, we reduce dependency on grid electricity generated from fossil fuels.


De-humidifying the air before cooling

To reduce the amount of energy required in the cooling process, the air in Flower Dome is de-humidified by liquid desiccant (drying agent) before it is cooled. This desiccant is recycled using the waste heat from the burning of the biomass.

Lake system:
Dragonfly & Kingfisher Lakes

The Gardens lake system incorporates key ecological processes and functions as a living system. It acts as a natural filtration system for water from the Gardens catchment and provides aquatic habitats for biodiversity such as fishes and dragonflies.

Encompassing two main lakes – Dragonfly Lake and Kingfisher Lake, the lake system is designed to be an extension of the Marina Reservoir. Water run-off from within the Gardens is captured by the lake system and cleansed by aquatic plants before being discharged into the reservoir. Naturally treated water from the lake system is also used in the irrigation system for the Gardens.

The lake system depicts the role and importance of plants in the healthy functioning of our ecosystem. It raises awareness of the value that aquatic plants play in nature, and highlights the significance of clean water in sustaining biodiversity.

Filtering of water run-off

Filter beds, comprising of aquatic reeds, and wetlands are located where water enters and discharges from the lake system. Water flow is reduced and sediments are filtered out.


Reducing nutrient load

Islands of aquatic plants and reed beds are incorporated to absorb nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in the water. A reduction of nitrogen levels is critical to minimising alga bloom and ensures better water quality.


Maintaining an aquatic ecosystem

Habitats for fish and dragonfly are created within the lake system by maintaining a diversity of aquatic plants, good water circulation and aeration. This keeps in check potential problems such as mosquito breeding.


Environmentally Sustainable Functions of the Supertrees

Eleven of the Supertrees are embedded with environmentally sustainable functions. Some have photovoltaic cells on their canopies to harvest solar energy for lighting up the Supertrees, while others are integrated with the Conservatories and serve as air exhaust receptacles.

VIILevent Photography
Energy Conservation Practice

As part of our sustainability effort to conserve energy, we switch off  non-essential decorative and accent illuminations at night. Lighting at walkways and car parks are also reduced during hours of low visitorship.

Creating the perfect home for biodiversity: Kingfisher Wetlands

Nestled amidst lush greenery and two of Gardens by the Bay’s prominent water bodies, Kingfisher Wetlands is a thriving ground for flora and fauna alike.

This freshwater wetlands was designed to enhance connectivity between the Lotus Pond and Kingfisher Lake, and at the same time segue seamlessly with the rest of the Gardens. Concerted efforts were made to develop Kingfisher Wetlands sensitively, so as to allow ecosystem functions to recover and wildlife to reconnect quickly post-development.

Kingfisher Wetlands
Planting a carbon sink

Over 200 mangrove trees and related plants can be found at Kingfisher Wetlands. These include native and critically endangered mangrove species such as the Firefly Mangrove (Sonneratia caseolaris) and Upriver Orange Mangrove (Bruguiera sexangula).

Mangroves are able to remove greenhouse gases from the environment and store up “blue” carbon to mitigate the effects of global warming. Interestingly, these plants are known to be able to sequester more carbon than rainforests. For this reason, mangroves are globally recognised as some of our best allies in the fight against climate change.

Submerged in water, mangrove trees also provide nursing environments and shelters critical to the survival of fish species as well as animals like otters.

Providing Opportunities for Wildlife Encounters

The Wildlife Lookout at Kingfisher Wetlands creates more opportunities for people to experience and encounter local fauna first-hand. Besides spotting some of the birds and animals that frequent the area from the Wildlife Lookout, visitors can also learn more about the biodiversity in Gardens by the Bay from educational signage in the vicinity.

Creating a salubrious environment for biodiversity to thrive

Among the distinctive elements of Kingfisher Wetlands are a series of water cascades and streamlets. Besides enhancing the area’s aesthetics, these water features also promote better aeration in the water, which in turn encourages the growth of microhabitats where biodiversity can flourish.